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Violence is an expression of the human will. As a part of his or her will, violence is an essential part of the human being. Since societies are made of human beings, violence is also an essential part of all human societies. Violence can be minimized but never abolished, so liberal attempts to do that are intrinsically ill-fated. And yet, violence expresses itself in different societies differently because these societies are organized differently. The manner of violence, then, is a consequence of the politico-cultural system. For lack of a better term, it is the dialectic of violence.

Such systems execute justice through violence; that is, the dialectic of violence directs violence either upward or downward. “Downward” violence is directed by a central authority, such as a state, against people whom violate its laws. It is absolute and abstract in that such laws are the same for everyone or no one—and such laws appeal to unseen mechanisms of enforcement. “Upward” violence is direct by people or groups of people against persons whom commit a perceived act of sacrilege. It is relative and concrete in that it is reliant on a tribal code of honor—and its mechanisms are expressed before everyone.

“Upward” violence can only be a cohesive form of justice in societies that are homogeneous, high-trust, and honor-based; lest, it lack legitimacy and only be delinquency. Where there is social continuity, the community enforces its code of honor, and there need not be political conformity. Likewise, where there is not social continuity, a central authority must enforce political conformity. Heterogeneous (i.e., “diverse”) societies lack trust and therefore lack a common perception of honor, so “downward” violence is the only possible system of justice. Consequentially, heterogeneous societies head down an ugly path of destruction of political freedom by inducing a sense of nihilistic atomization in the people.

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